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European H1N1 influenza vaccine may trigger narcolepsy

European H1N1 influenza vaccine may trigger narcolepsy

Publish date: 2015-08-05

Flu pandemic in 2009 and related vaccination have left an undesirable stigma throughout Europe. More than 1300 people who received a vaccine called Pandemrix has developed narcolepsy.

Tags: flu , influenza , vaccination , vaccine , Pandemrix , narcolepsy , H1N1 , pandemic

In 2009 during H1N1 influenza pandemic Pandemrix has been administered to more than 30 million Europeans. More than 1300 of them has developed narcolepsy – an incurable disease causing overpowering daytime sleepiness and sudden muscle weakness in response to strong emotions. The condition in general affects one in 3000 Europeans and leads to a loss of brain cells exposing a receptor for hypocretin, a molecule that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.

To the date, the link between a disease and vaccination remained elusive. At the beginning of July 2015 researchers presented a possible cause, that is an autoimmune reaction resulting from genetic background. Almost every patient with the vaccine-associated form of disease has a specific variant in a gene in the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) family coding elements of major histocompatibility complex and helping to distinguish own proteins from invader material. It appears, that some human proteins resembles those of vaccine-targeted H1N1 influenza nucleoprotein – that is hypocretin receptor 2 in certain brain cells. Binding of antibodies from vaccinated patients’ serum to this receptor was confirmed experimentally and the effect was specifically linked to Pandemrix and not other available flu vaccines.

The link between vaccination and disease occurrence has been confirmed by the manufacturer GlaxoSmith-Kline (GSK). Some patients have already received their compensation.

Now scientist are working on possible strategies to overcome harmful effects or prevent such episodes in the future. Among possible solutions is to somehow unblock and recover the hypocretin receptor bind to antibodies. Another possibility for safer vaccine production is to keep the nucleoprotein levels low or to remove the specific region of the protein that mimics the receptor.

 

Source: Science Magazine

Monika Kossakowska-Zwierucho

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